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The Data Models

The following sections depict the different ways of data propagation provided by oracles and how developers can integrate Switchboard to have full control over how data is sourced on-chain for their smart contracts.


Data is pushed on-chain by the oracle at a routine interval. The integrator just needs to verify the data was recently pushed and doesn't need to handle any off-chain requesting.

Switchboard Functions allow you to set up functions on a cron schedule, which essentially performs the same as a push based oracle. See Switchboard Functions for more information.

Pull (Not supported)​

Data is first fetched and maintained in a data store (it can be another blockchain, sub-chain or centralized database). From this data store, the data is then pulled on-chain by the integrator.


Data is sourced off-chain each time it is requested and populated on-chain with a callback into the callers smart contract. This method is more complex to integrate but is less susceptible to oracle attacks because the data is only sourced when the user requests it.

Switchboard Functions allow you to set up functions on a callback model, which allows you to trigger based on events and pass in parameters. See Switchboard Functions for more information.


Each type of data propagation method poses their own advantages. The following table compares the different criteria that should be looked at when deciding which method is best for your specific solution.

MethodSettlement TimeCostData Availability (Staleness)
PushInstant (dependent on RPCs)Expensive (constant streams even when not needed)Data is stale between each update
PullAwait bridge and data storeInexpensive (requests only when needed)Data is fresh upon each pull
CallbackAwait function executionInexpensive (updates based on events)Data is fresh upon each callback