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Program Architecture

Each oracle queue in the Switchboard Network is autonomous and maintains its own configurations, which determine the level of security it provides. This design choice enables users to tailor the oracle queue's behavior to match their specific use case. Anyone can create their own queue and even run their own private Switchboard Network if desired.

Queue Architecture

Oracle Assignment​

The Switchboard Network employs a round-robin approach to assign update requests to oracles. This section explains the key aspects of this method and its benefits for the network.

Heartbeat Requirement​

Oracles are required to periodically heartbeat on-chain before the queue.oracleTimeout to signal their readiness. If an oracle fails to heartbeat within this time frame, it will be temporarily removed from the queue and won't be assigned any update requests until it successfully heartbeats again.

The queue utilizes queue.gcIdx to track its garbage collection index. If an oracle fails to send a heartbeat before queue.oracleTimeout, it is removed from the queue until it sends a successful heartbeat again. This process ensures that only active oracles are assigned resource update requests.

Round-Robin Assignment​

Update requests are assigned to oracles in a round-robin fashion, ensuring a fair distribution of tasks among oracles. Aggregators or data feeds can specify the number of oracles (N) required for each request. The system will then assign the next N oracles in the queue to fulfill the request. If there are not enough oracles in the queue, the update request will fail.

Periodic Swapping of Oracle Positions​

To provide an element of unpredictability and mitigate the risk of oracles being assigned the same update requests in every iteration, oracle positions in the queue are periodically swapped. This helps to further distribute tasks fairly and enhances the overall security of the network.

Access Control​

The Switchboard Network provides flexible access control options for each oracle queue, allowing queue operators to define whether data consumers need pre-approval or whether any requester can access the queue. This feature allows users to maintain control over their data resources and the level of security they require.


Oracles are always required to be granted PermitOracleHeartbeat permissions before joining a queue.

With Switchboard V3 oracles are pre-approved as long as they verify their MRENCLAVE measurements proving they are running a given software baseline within a trusted execution environment.

Economic Security​

Economic incentives are employed to encourage oracles to act honestly and provide accurate data. These incentives form the basis of the queue's security model and include:

  • Reward: The number of tokens an oracle or crank turner receives for successfully completing an on-chain action
  • Slashing: Discouraging oracles from responding to update requests outside a set margin of error
  • Minimum Stake: Oracles are required to stake a minimum amount of capital to give them skin in the game.

These economic measures help ensure that the oracles in the network provide reliable data and contribute to the overall security of the system.


Oracle queues can be governed by network participants to control various queue configuration parameters, such as queue.minStake, queue.reward, queue.slashingEnabled, and permitting new oracles to join the network. Governance can be achieved through a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) or other mechanisms, allowing the community to have a say in the network's operation.

By understanding and leveraging the features of independent oracle queues, users can customize the Switchboard Network to meet their specific requirements and achieve the desired level of security.